Throughout his career, Lance Armstrong always responded to doping accusations by saying he had been tested for banned substances hundreds of times and never produced a positive result. How could the world’s greatest cyclist, always in the cross hairs of doping officials, never fail a drug test if he was doping, Armstrong reasoned.
An explanation emerged Wednesday, when the United States Anti-Doping Agency released its dossier on Armstrong, citing witness testimony, financial records and laboratory results. Armstrong was centrally involved in a sprawling, sophisticated doping program, the agency said, yet he employed both cunning and farcical methods to beat the sport’s drug-testing system.
The report also introduced new scientific evidence that the agency said suggested Armstrong was doping the last two times he competed in the Tour de France.
“It has been a frequent refrain of Armstrong and his representatives over the years that Lance Armstrong has never had a positive drug test,” the report said. “That does not mean, however, he did not dope. Nor has Armstrong apparently had nearly as many doping tests as his representatives have claimed.”
As part of its investigation, Usada asked Christopher J. Gore, the head of physiology at the Australian Institute of Sport, to analyze test results from 38 blood samples taken from Armstrong between February 2009 and the end of last April. Those taken during the 2009 and 2010 Tours, the report said, showed blood values whose likelihood “of occurring naturally was less than one in a million,” and other indications of blood doping.
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HowStuffWorks: How Presidential Debates Work “The presidential debate is a time-honored institution that’s constantly evolving. Learn about the presidential debate and the impact it has on voters.”
The name ‘cottage’ in cottage cheese comes from early European farmers who made this cheese in their cottages with milk that was left over from making butter. Today, cottage cheese is not made form buttermilk or whey. – Provided by Reference.com
10 Legendary Monsters of Australia and Antarctica – Mental Floss
You’d think that there are enough scary animals in Australia that monstrous legends wouldn’t be necessary. Apparently the deadly creatures that terrorize people on a regular basis aren’t scary enough. The continent also includes New Zealand, and I slid a monster of Antarctica in here as a convenience. Ningens and Bunyips and Yowies, oh my!
What is Logic?
Logic is a domain of philosophy concerned with rational criteria that applies to argumentation. Logic includes a study of argumentation within ordinary language, consistent reasoning, valid argumentation, and errors in reasoning. It is divided into two main domains: Formal and informal logic.
Formal logic is the traditional domain of logic in western philosophy. It is a domain that covers logical form, consistency, valid argumentation, and logical systems.
Logical form allows us to symbolize statements by stripping statements of their content. For example, consider the statement “if it will rain today, then the roads will become slippery.” The logical form of this statement would be presented in propositional logic as “if A, then B.” In that case “A” stands for “it will rain today” and “B” stands for “the roads will be slippery.” Logical connectives are kept, such as “if,” “and,” “or,” and “not.”
Logicians don’t usually write statements as “if A, then B.” Instead, they usually use a symbol for logical connectives, such as “→.” We can state “if A, then B” as “A → B.”
Felix Baumgartner headcam video: ‘It was like Hell, it was terrifying’
As he plummeted towards the ground, sickeningly spinning head-over-heels, millions of spectators could only imagine the terror Felix Baumgartner felt as his free fall transformed into an out-of-control ‘death spin’. But now newly-released footage from a camera mounted to his space suit shows exactly what the skydiver could see as he began to lose control of his supersonic fall at 834mph.< Yesterday, the 43-year-old Austrian became the first freefall diver to break the sound barrier, and also broke the record for the highest-ever manned balloon ascent, but the attempt could have easily been fatal as he explained afterwards. ‘In that situation, when you spin around, it’s like hell and you don’t know if you can get out of that spin or not,’ he said.
Skydiver Baumgartner Breaks Sound Barrier
On Sunday, exactly 65 years after US test pilot Chuck Yeager surpassed the speed of sound for the first time in an aircraft, Austrian daredevil Felix Baumgartner set his own incredible record, becoming the first skydiver in history to break the sound barrier in free fall. He reached a top speed of 833.9 mph (1,342 km/h), or Mach 1.24, after jumping from a record 128,100 ft (24 mi; 39 km) up in the stratosphere. Baumgartner’s feat also broke the record for highest altitude skydive, previously held by Joseph Kittinger, who acted as an advisor on this latest jump.
Live and Let Die
A review of 100 Plus: How the Coming Age of Longevity Will Change Everything, From Careers and Relationships to Family and Faith, Sonia Arrison
By Christopher Caldwell
A popular Halloween costume in Boston in recent years has featured the late Red Sox left-fielder Ted Williams, decapitated, holding a goo-filled jar in which his head is suspended. There used to be no hero in Boston like Williams, a baseball Hall of Famer and arguably the greatest hitter who ever lived. But his children’s decision to have Williams beheaded and flash-frozen by an Arizona “cryonics” laboratory after his death in 2002, in hopes he might be brought back to life someday, has reduced him to a ghoulish laughingstock.
It is human to rage against the dying of the light. But striving for immortality is a contemptible act of cowardice before the inevitable, a waste of the limited time we are allotted here on earth, and an arrogant affront to the order of things. In writing 100 Plus, a defense of various present-day attempts to defeat death, Sonia Arrison is aware she is arguing a case that has been ridiculed by Swift, Goethe, Mary Shelley, and Oscar Wilde. She doesn’t much care. Against these scoffers she sets the views of contemporary futurists and Silicon Valley venture capitalists, many of them affiliated with the new Singularity University, of which Arrison is a founder and promoter. Her book is a pep talk and a political call to arms against bioethicists, regulators, and others urging us to think twice about whether it is wise to meddle with our lifespans.
Arrison is eager not to be confused with various longevity faddists of yore, from Ponce de Leon to Serge Voronoff, who a century ago started a fad for grafting monkey testicles onto those of aging men. The Irish poet William Butler Yeats underwent a related procedure (vasoligation), close enough to Voronoff’s to win him the mocking nickname “The Gland Old Man.” The English philosopher John Gray has recently published an account (The Immortalization Commission) of certain 19th-and 20th-century seekers of immortality in Britain and Russia. We might call them crackpots today.
But this time is different, Arrison insists. We know better now. She focuses on big technological advances—on tissue engineering and “organ-printing,” for instance, which have succeeded in producing artificial bladders and windpipes. She is especially enthusiastic about various gene-mapping projects, which have brought the price of sequencing an individual genome down to about $5,000 and are on the verge, as the genetic entrepreneur Craig Venter puts it, of turning biology into an information technology. Cryonics, of the sort that Ted Williams’s family placed such stock in, figures in her vision of our future, too, especially now that “vitrification” permits corpses to be flash-frozen without damaging swelling.
The Mysterious Polaroids of Bastian Kalous
Generally when I think of Polaroid photographs I’m reminded of old family snapshots, perhaps a camera passed around close-quarters at a party, or a few artistic captures of flowers, textures or an old beat-up vehicle. Photographer Bastian Kalous has a very different approach, carrying his Polaroid camera around the world into the sweeping vistas of the Grand Canyon, the valleys surrounding the Grand Tetons, and other expanses of forests and mountains near his home in Freyung, a town in Bavaria, Germany. These are locations rarely explored with instant film these days, and I find his work both refreshing and mysterious. Luckily he has several hundred photos to explore, and I strongly urge you to do so.
Bad to the bone for sure!
Evolution mostly driven by brawn, not brains
The most common measure of intelligence in animals, brain size relative to body size, may not be as dependent on evolutionary selection on the brain as previously thought, according to a new analysis by scientists. Brain size relative to body size has been used by generations of scientists to predict an animal’s intelligence. For example, although the human brain is not the largest in the animal kingdom in terms of volume or mass, it is exceptionally large considering our moderate body mass.
Now, a study by a team of scientists at UCL, the University of Konstanz, and the Max Planck Institute of Ornithology has found that the relationship between the two traits is driven by different evolutionary mechanisms in different animals.
Crucially, researchers have found that the most significant factor in determining relative brain size is often evolutionary pressure on body size, and not brain size.
Curious History: The Newest Japanese Fashion Trend – Mood-Sensing Cat Tails
A Japanese company is making it just a little easier for humans to act like cats. But instead of offering nine lives, Japan’s Neurowear has introduced a wearable cat tail that wags when a user’s mood changes.
Called Shippo – Japanese for “tail”- the device debuted at Saturday’s Tokyo Games Show and comes as the latest in a new line of products that read users’ brain waves. Adding a new twist, Shippo uses a headset, a clip-on heart monitor, and a neural smart phone app to read the wearer’s brain waves and sense his or her mood. Once that fluffy tail is wagging, the device tags the wearer’s mood to a location online, which can be shared with other users.
As a company, Neurowear has released more than just cat tails. The company has also released a line of wag-able cat ears which also read human brain waves and wiggle with mood.
NeuroLogica Blog » Proof of Heaven?
In an article for Newsweek, neurosurgeon Eben Alexander recounts his near death experience during a coma from bacterial meningitis. This is sure to become a staple of the NDE/afterlife community, as Alexander recounts in articulate and breathless terms his profound experience. His book is called, Proof of Heaven – a bold claim for someone who insists he is and remains a scientist.
There is no scientific explanation for the fact that while my body lay in coma, my mind—my conscious, inner self—was alive and well. While the neurons of my cortex were stunned to complete inactivity by the bacteria that had attacked them, my brain-free consciousness journeyed to another, larger dimension of the universe: a dimension I’d never dreamed existed and which the old, pre-coma me would have been more than happy to explain was a simple impossibility.
While his experience is certainly interesting, his entire premise is flimsily based on a single word in the above paragraph – “while.”